Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Gilgamesh Heros Journey Analysis - 1052 Words

In The Epic of Gilgamesh we see an epic hero, Gilgamesh, rule over the town of Urik. He is a harsh ruler who makes his power known to his people. Shortly after this, he meets his equal in strength, Enkidu, who is a man from nature. Together these two conquer many lands until the gods decide that they are two powerful together, and they kill Enkidu. This loss to Gilgamesh forces him to go out wandering the land looking for answers to immorality. Everything that Gilgamesh does follows the character trail of an epic hero. The hero’s journey gives us a close representation to the archetype of Gilgamesh’s journey. However, in order to complete the hero’s journey to fit Gilgamesh’s, it needs to include a challenge of power and another†¦show more content†¦This is the beginning of a second expedition in the story. In the hero’s journey, it goes from the ultimate boon, which is Enkidu’s death, to refusal of return. This leaves out t he key factor that sparks the last journey of the story which is the call to adventure. Furthermore, the call to adventure needs to be placed after the ultimate boon because that event is the reason why Gilgamesh receives another call to adventure. Moreover, we see how these two key events that occur in The Epic of Gilgamesh must be added to the hero’s journey in order for it to completely fit Gilgamesh’s journey. Another way that the hero’s journey can be modified to better match Gilgamesh’s journey is by deleting two ideas that are less relevant. First, the temptation should be removed from the journey. The temptation is less revalent because the previous idea mentioned in the journey, meeting with the goddess, includes a temptation. â€Å"‘Come, Gilgamesh, be you my bridegroom!’† (Tablet VI, 7). Here we see Ishtar attempting to persuade Gilgamesh to make love with her. This event is put in the meeting with the goddess because Ishtar is a god, and she happens to be tempting Gilgamesh into something that could change the outcome of the story. Moreover, the meeting with the goddess make the temptation part of the hero’s journey useless; thus it should be removed. Not only should the temptation be removed, but the transcendence shouldShow MoreRelatedTheme Of Mortality In The Epic Of Gilgamesh1220 Words   |  5 PagesThe Epic of Gilgamesh: A Hero’s Journey Several themes are addressed throughout the Epic of Gilgamesh, but the most prominent lies within the confrontation and acceptance of mortality. Gilgamesh—king of Uruk, ambitious builder, and bravest of mercenaries—seems to be blessed by a combination of two-thirds godliness and one-third manliness, yet plagued by his very own immoderation and naivety. The hero is witnessed engaging in the molestation of his women and exhausting Uruk’s people with manual laborRead MoreAthanasia: Human Impermanence and the Journey for Eternal Life in the Epic of Gilgamesh1740 Words   |  7 PagesAthanasia: Human Impermanence and the Journey for Eternal Life in the Epic of Gilgamesh â€Å"Will you too die as Enkidu did? Will grief become your food? Will we both fear the lonely hills, so vacant? I now race from place to place, dissatisfied with whereever I am and turn my step toward Utnapishtim, godchild of Ubaratutu† (Jackson â€Å"Gilgamesh Tablet IX† 4-9) Gilgamesh so much feared death that he threw away his honor as a warrior in order to obtain immortality. For centuries there have existed individualsRead MoreWeaknesses Of The Epic Of Gilgamesh1027 Words   |  5 PagesKensie Campbell Paper 1 EN 231 9/20/17 What comes to mind when one hears the word hero? We typically refer to a hero as someone with superhuman powers or qualities of bravery, wisdom, and strength. â€Å"The Epic of Gilgamesh† narrates the story of a beautiful, powerful man named Gilgamesh who is king of Sumerian city-state Uruk. In hopes to reverse his destiny, Gilgamesh journeys from one end of the world to the other in hopes to find immortality. The poem of â€Å"El Cid† is about a gentleman who fightsRead MoreA Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh Essay examples1640 Words   |  7 PagesA Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh There are many differences and critical comparisons that can be drawn between the epics of Beowulf and Gilgamesh. Both are historical poems which shape their respected culture and both have major social, cultural, and political impacts on the development of western civilization literature and writing. Before any analysis is made, it is vital that some kind of a foundation be established so that a further, in-depth exploration of the complex natureRead MoreThe Epic Of Epic Heroes2181 Words   |  9 Pagesheroes? How different would The Odyssey be if Odysseus never went on his epic journey? Would the epic poem Beowulf still be read today if the character Beowulf never challenged Grendel and Grendel’s mother? In the story, The Epic of Gilgamesh, characters, both men and women, exhibit characteristics that could be considered heroic, but do they represent epic heroes? Applying a character analysis to The Epic of Gilgamesh will not only help define their status as epic heroes, but will also reveal theRead MoreImmorality In Gilgamesh2049 Words   |  9 Pages Immorality in Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh had a journey that he had begun with Enkidu which they had to travel to Cedar Forest to defeat Humbaba. When Enkidu died, Gilgamesh had to deal with his own journey that’s when everything begins for him. He learned immortality from which he got from Utnapishtim. His journey ended when he had returned to Uruk. The second part of his journey was for wisdom. When Gilgamesh had to find Utnapishtim, he believes that it was for immortality. But it was impossibleRead MoreAn Analysis Of The Of Gilgamesh Essay2392 Words   |  10 PagesEmphasis of Enkidu: An Analysis of Relationships in Gilgamesh Characters are an essential building block to the narrative; who they are, what they represent and their relationships amongst one another. Particularly the bonds between characters can enhance the plot by providing the readers with an ability to connect with the characters and by enhancing the peculiarities within the narrative. A specific narrative that employs character relationships in this manner is Gilgamesh. The epic follows theRead More A Jungian Analysis of the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay3198 Words   |  13 PagesA Jungian Analysis of the Epic of Gilgamesh   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper will provide a unique, psychological perspective on a timeless story that is alive with mythological and religious splendor. I must state clearly that this is not the first time that Gilgamesh has been viewed in the light of the philosophy of Jung.   One of two Jung essays I happened upon while preparing my research was the Psychology of Religion. Although I initially felt that this source would provide little help with my paper, IRead MoreJohn Milton s Paradise Lost2283 Words   |  10 Pagesform of poems to convey ideals, beliefs, and traditions. Hundreds of Epics have been written, and among them, many stand out, especially Virgil’s The Aeneid, Beowulf, and John Milton’s Paradise Lost, as they prove to be impactful and useful in the analysis of changes in the relationship between divinity, defined as of or relating to a god, celestial, religious, or sacred (dictionary.com), and mankind, as well as the idea of fate as it relates to manki nd. The Aeneid, being a classical Greco-Roman EpicRead MoreSituational Analysis: 7th Grade Language Arts6569 Words   |  26 PagesSituational Analysis Grade 7th Grade Language Arts Classroom rules and routines: In this classroom, I am committed to building a cooperative learning environment that contributes to the confidence of students in sharing their ideas. This confidence is built around an understanding that the students have, that they are to respect each other and their ideas. There are multiple ethnicities represented in this classroom, therefore it is paramount that everybody respects each other and appreciates what

Friday, May 15, 2020

Benefits Of Creating Inclusive Programs - 1545 Words

Everyone is different, everyone is unique; it is what makes people human. Some try to embrace these differences, but there are still many that have closed their minds to diversity. There are various groups that have fallen victim to exclusion, one of them being the special needs population. Those in the special needs population are those with mental and physical disabilities, as well as their family. By excluding this group of people, whether intentionally or not, communities miss out on a valued opportunity for unity and understanding. For these reasons, the special needs population require more public awareness through inclusion programs, creating an adaptive community, and focused government support. There are many benefits to creating inclusive programs but the most important are the personal benefits that people gain. First, though, what is inclusion? Inclusion is defined by research associates for Services of School Improvement with this quote by E. J. Erwin: â€Å"The true es sence of inclusion is based on the premise that all individuals with disabilities have a right to be included in naturally occurring settings and activities with their neighborhood peers, siblings, and friends† (Thompkins and Deloney 2). This works as a basic foundation description of what inclusion means, but what does inclusion do? According to research done by Dr. Abby S. Letcher and Kathy M. Perlow, holder of a BBA, there are many mental, social, and physical health benefits to inclusion (292).Show MoreRelatedCommon Themes Of Inclusive Education Essay1221 Words   |  5 PagesThe Discussion Findings The reviewed literature revealed several common themes regarding inclusive education. The first common theme is teacher attitudes toward inclusion. Almost all of the studies revealed that negative perspectives about inclusive education make schools that try to implement inclusive classrooms likely candidates for failure. One of the primary influencing factors of teachers’ negative perceptions is that of the teachers’ lack of confidence in their ability to teach specialRead MoreSchools In The Present-Day Society Are Constantly Shifting1294 Words   |  6 Pagesshifting and growing to implement first rate methods in their schools. Before a particular school is allowed to include a program to their curriculum, they must first demonstrate stable evidence that proves the new method will work. A new curriculum that schools are aspiring to take effect is inclusion in the daily classroom. Schools are hopeful of the benefits and advances that a program like this could bring . The enactment of inclusion is heavily connected by all students, teachers and parent’s attitudesRead MoreInclusive Education For Children With Disabilities1631 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Inclusive education is where children with disabilities receive special education services in the general education setting. Many factors can make inclusion difficult or complex. Accommodating instruction to meet the educational needs of all students is one of the most fundamental problems in education. Many argue that inclusive practices benefit all students. While others argue that inclusive education is inadequately designed to meet the needs of exceptional students. Benefits of inclusiveRead MoreImproving Student Participation Is A Matter Of Importance1543 Words   |  7 PagesIn a classroom we come across student diversity in terms of ability, ethnicity and learning needs. Ensuring student participation is a matter of importance, since children are at times deprived of equal right to use inclusive education from early childhood through to adulthood. Inclusive education means eliminating the distinction between special and regular education and giving equal opportunities despit e their level of disability. It implies that providing educational facilities to students withRead MoreInclusive Education for Children with Disabilities Essay1628 Words   |  7 Pagesstudents in 2003 (The Council of Chief State School Officers , 2007). The philosophy of inclusive education has â€Å"brought about teams of general education and special education teachers working collaboratively or cooperatively to combine their professional knowledge, perspectives, and skills† (Ripley, 1997). Many approaches have been developed and researched over the years to determine best practices for inclusive education in public schools, which include mainstreaming and specialized schools. TheRead MoreInclusive Education Essay1546 Words   |  7 Pagesmeaning of Inclusion, a complex issue which creates continuous debates. In the book Creating Inclusive Classrooms, J. Spencer Salend defines inclusion as : â€Å"[†¦] a philosophy that brings diverse students, families, educators and community members together to create schools and other social institutions based on acceptance, belonging and community [†¦] (Creating inclusive Classrooms, 2005, p.6) As a result, inclusive education considers as from a young age, all students as full members of the schoolRead MoreInclussive Teaching Essay1110 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Problem background Many children face big challenges because of the inclusive education, with a greater number from poorer countries failing to attend schools while the others from rich countries attending classes but ends up leaving unworthy qualifications (Ainscow, 2). Disabled students have the right to good education and feel free to interact with others in classrooms which help them to get rid of loneliness and therefore reducing the stresses. Research question From the researchRead MoreCreating a Positive Learning Environment Essay1068 Words   |  5 Pagesdifficulties for me as a new teacher. Education systems and services are integral to setting up a learning environment that maximises teaching and learning. I agree with Munro (2009) that being aware of what services, programs and support staff are available will be of great benefit to the learning environment, students and professional learning. I believe that adopting individual education plans, students learning profiles and modifying the curriculum can reduce the concern that some researches expressRead MoreInclusion is Not a One Size Fits All Solution1697 Words   |  7 Pagesimpact of risk. History has shown that when pushing for more changes in curriculum models to include inclusion, the benefits are apparent for all students in the classroom. However, inclusion is not a one size fits all solution. Some students cannot work in the same classroom as other students, as there are too many distractions created by their peers. Other students may excel in an inclusive setting. Learning and working in the same classroom with peers helps them learn valuable academic and social skillsRead MoreCan The Regular Inclusive Classroom?1592 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Many students who are gifted require differentiated programming and supports to meet their exceptional learning needs† (Alberta Education, p.172). Can the regular inclusive classroom, a heterogeneous program, be enough of a challenge to stimulate the thinking to reach the gifted learner? Or, is a homogenous classroom, comprised of only gifted individuals, be the best academic solution for these exceptional students ? As of June 2014, in the Catholic District School Board of Eastern Ontario, there

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Validation Of The Staxi 2 Essay - 1282 Words

Conceptualization The major question behind this study was to further examine the validation of the STAXI-2 in clinical settings. It was expected that the STAXI-2 would show reliability in both its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. It was also believed that the trait scales of the STAXI-2 would be more significant than the State Anger Scale. Tithe STAXI-2 scales were predicted to be associated with at least three of the personality traits: Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. It was also predicted that the general population would express less anger and less often than the clinical population and the forensic population. The State-Trait Anger Theory attempts to explain how individuals express and experience anger. This theory explains that anger can be felt as both temporary states and as a trait (how the individual typically feel). State-Trait Anger Theory Individuals with a high trait anger express state anger more frequently than individuals with low trait anger. It has been known that anger is present in psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD, etc. Individuals that have been diagnosed with these disorders and experience anger report more anger and dissatisfaction toward their treatment outcomes and behavioral treatment. In a study by Cullari (1994) individuals diagnosed with mental illnesses had significantly higher scores on the STAXI-2 than participants with no mental

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cultural Difference and Cultural Awareness Essay Sample free essay sample

Following decennaries of globalisation and transnational enlargement. the big corporations and organisations of today have work force that is ethnically. linguistically and culturally every bit varied as the universe itself. Peoples from across the Earth work. interact and collaborate together within the same roof and working environment. Under such fortunes of close coaction and interaction. it is inevitable that at some point or other. the common cultural difference comes into drama as a barrier as people gets guided by their cultural exposure and upbringing. Employees by and large carry their ain values and moralss. embedded in their personality through old ages. and are frequently loath or unable to wholly acquire past the strong cultural imprint received in their formative periods ( Rahim. 2001. 1 ) . While presence of cultural difference in itself is really of import for any organisation as it helps in its multidimensional growing and enlargement of its universe position. there is ever a opportunity that crisp differences in civilization besides lead to state of affairs of struggle and emphasis within the organisation. We will write a custom essay sample on Cultural Difference and Cultural Awareness Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Culture plays a cardinal function in most of the instances of organisational struggle. The function of civilization can be direct or elusive. but it about ever decides the range of struggle. its way or its result and determines whether struggle really exists or non ( Rahim. 2001. 1 ) . For many people brought up in a peaceable and non-confrontational civilization. universe may be seen as a uniformly harmonious entity. and they may non be cognizant of any struggle through their life. while those who have learned to vie at every phase of their life. may see struggle and emphasis all around them ( Burrel. 1990. 54 ) . . Therefore it is of critical importance that modern directors are good cognizant of cultural component. the embedded differences and their range and possible effects to make a theoretical account and successful organisation ( Killian and Pammer Jr. 2003. 3 ) . Cases of inter-cultural differences must be handled in the most democratic manner. in order to develop a healthy organisational construction. In this regard. germinating cultural apprehension is the first measure during this class of which. directors besides need to germinate systematic consciousness of inter-cultural organisational model ( Killian and Pammer Jr. 2003. 3 ) . Directors must engender acquaintance with different civilizations existent in their organisation and modulate their response consequently when they interact with each of them. The five indispensable factors that greatly help in the procedure of making cultural consciousness and acquaintance are one. Cultural apprehension ; two. grasp for all the civilizations ; three. developing an ability communicating manner that cuts through state of affairss of inter-cultural struggle ; four. germinating an indifferent cultural mentality and v. acknowledging the function of civilization in life and individualities of employees. An affinity for cultural consciousness has become the key for modern successful professional life as corporations have started to often revolve their directors through their multiple planetary installations. where directors are faced with challenges of make overing their full cultural apprehension from the abrasion ( ( Rahim. 2001 ) . People. and accordingly organisations can be productive merely when they work in the ambiance of entire apprehension. familiarly and grasp. Mentions Burrel. N. A. 1990. Theory and Research in Conflict Management. edit M. Afzalur Rahim – editor. Praeger Publishers. : New York Handbook of Conflict Management. ( 2003 ) . Jerri Killian. William J. Pammer Jr. ( edits ) : Marcel Dekker. New York. Rahim. M. A ( 2001 ) . Pull offing Conflict in Organizations. Subscribers: M. Afzalur: Quorum Books. Westport. CT

Monday, April 13, 2020

Individualism vs. Collectivism

Introduction This paper discusses the ideals of individualism and collectivism. There exist cultural disparities in social behavior caused by ideals of collectivism and individualism. Individualism is the notion that life is individualistic and thus, everyone has a right to live as he pleases (Sampson, 2001).Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Individualism vs. Collectivism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This ideal also holds that a person ought to act on his individual opinions, pursue the values of his preference as well as utilize and maintain the creation of his effort. Besides, it is the thought that the person is an end to himself, independent and the basic component of moral concern (Kim, 1994). This represents the principle that Americans expressed and endeavored to launch when they formed the Constitution that safeguards a person’s rights to freedom, rights to live, right to own possessions, a s well as the individual quest for happiness. On the other hand, collectivism is the thought that a person’s life belongs to the entire community and that he does not possess any rights (Kim, 1994). Rather, the idea holds that an individual should forfeit his goals and values for the good of the larger group. From the perspective of collectivism, the society forms the fundamental element of moral concern, and a person has to serve the group to get value (Kim, 1994). In other words, the only rights that an individual possesses are those that the society bestows. From when a person is born to the day of his demise, the community allows him certain rights and denies him others. This ideal values the welfare, preservation and happiness of the entire community. Collectivism and individualism have a strong attachment to the society and thus, they shape our identities and behavior. The two ideals shape our values, attitudes, understanding, communication, socialization, as well as at tribution. Normally, intellectuals use individualist behaviors to describe people in Western parts of the world including North America and Western Europe, while they use collectivism to describe people from other parts of the world such as Africa, South American, and Asia. The majority of Europeans and North Americans have a sovereign perception of the self as a unit that is self-sufficient, unique, independent and gifted with exclusive characters.Advertising Looking for assessment on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, in countries like Africa, Asia and Latin America, citizens embrace a mutually dependent perception of the self as a component of a bigger social system that comprises the family, colleagues as well as others to whom we have social attachments. As per se, Americans are more apt to articulate ego-focused sentiments such as pride and resentment. Conversely, Japanese who are collectivist ofte n announce feelings of gratitude to somebody, familiarity to somebody and association with someone. Resolving the Conflict between Individualism and Collectivism The issue of individualism vs. collectivism is a source of main conflict in America. American scholars and politicians seek to know with certainty whether an individual has total rights over his life, or whether individuals belong to societies, from where they should derive their moral values. Those who support individualism use ideas of metaphysics, to support their claims. They argue that people that we see in the environment exit as entities and not groups. While they recognize that people may be in groups, they say that we see indivisible beings that have their own bodies’ minds and life. In their interpretation, groups are just individuals who gather for their self-interests. They assert that the fact that people exist as entity beings is an observable truth that does not need debate. Individualism, Collectivism and Culture Several factors determine whether a culture assumes the collectivist or individualistic nature. The first is the wealth of society. As citizens start to thrive, they become economically independent from each other, and this also encourages social independence, mobility in addition to a focus on individual and not collective ends. The second factor is the complexity of a society. People exist in more multifaceted modern societies, as opposed to the nomads, they get more groups to relate to, and this makes them to have a larger focus on individual rather than collective goals, because they have less loyalty to these groups. Another factor is heterogeneity. Homogeneous or tight societies are apt to be rigid and intolerant of those who behave in unacceptable ways. Factors that characterize such communities include shared religion, language and societal principles. Heterogeneous societies, which have many cultures coexisting together, tend to be more tolerant, creating room for further individual expression. Individualism stresses personal autonomy and accomplishment. Hence, an individualist culture honors social status depending on individual undertakings such as significant innovations, inventions, artwork, or charitable work and all dealings that make a person noticeable Collectivism, in contrast emphasizes on connectedness of persons in a bigger group. It supports conventionality and disheartens individuals from rebelling and acting distinctively. African development serves as a good illustration of collectivism.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Individualism vs. Collectivism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Africans treat productive persons with distrust and force them to share their extra wealth with the community. Therefore, collective reprimands exist to punish the affluent. Such reprimands take the form of social exclusion, loss of status, or even violence. For instanc e, communities have often used witchcraft allegations to punish gluttony and covetousness in addition to ambitions to travel to other areas. At the rear of these reprimands is the fear that the connectedness of the society will be destabilized and that a person who seems more flourishing will depart the community or will not reallocate any extra products, or food. In most African communities, people with huge savings tend to keep this as a secret from other community members at all costs, for fear of retribution. Measures of Collectivism and Individualism Hofstede (1980) came up with a conventional measure of collectivism and individualism. He utilized studies of IBM workers in thirty countries to draw conclusions. His idea was to study people with equal jobs in diverse nations in the same firm in an attempt to gauge cultural disparities. To evade cultural prejudice in the framing of questions, a team of English and native language speakers participated in the interpretation of the survey into native languages. Recently, Hofstede’s gauge of individualism extends to about 80 nations. The gauge of individualism in other methods other than Hofstede’s index utilizes a wide selection of survey queries to create cultural standards. To sum up construct indices and information, they use factor analysis. The index of individualism, in Hofstede’s study, is the primary factor in queries concerning the significance of autonomy, personal time, as well as fascinating and satisfying work. This factor loads negatively on significance of collaboration, associations with seniors as well as harmony and positively on valuing accomplishment, personal liberty, prospects, recognition and progression. Discrepancies of Individualism and Collectivism among Persons Attitudes towards collectivist and individualist ideals are not mutually exclusive. For instance, they can exist together on the personal level, since people have both sovereign and co-dependent attitudes . Besides, collectivist and individualist approaches can be set off as a function of social associations and communal perspectives. Thus, we can say, individualist associations are regular with a number of people or in certain circumstances such as in business dealings, while with others the association is collectivist such as with relatives. There exists variation in collectivist and individualist attitudes in diverse forms of associations for instance, with a parent, fiancà ©e, neighbor, or colleague. Thus, people belong to certain groupings of collectivist and individualist attitudes.Advertising Looking for assessment on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Development of Individualism and Collectivism among different Countries Americans perceive individualism as a good thing. Nevertheless, the term individualism seems to have its origin remote to the North American sphere, specifically in the French Revolution. It seems that America used individualism to portray the negative effect of personal rights on the interests of the commonwealth. The growing surge of the individual rights group was apprehensive. People thought that individualism would quickly make the society fall apart into the power of individualism (Burke, 1973). From this perspective, individualism portrays a worldview opposed to society and communal social organization. In fact, there is an extensive Western custom of differentiating collective and individual spotlights. For instance, Emile Durkheim utilized the words mechanical and organic cohesion to compare the provisional associations formed in multifaceted communities among different others. From this perspective, or ganic solidarity describes a personal focus and the lasting bonds created among parallel others in traditional communities. Mechanical solidarity, on the other hand, is the communal focus. In addition, Weber (1930) differentiated Protestantism with Catholicism to show the difference between individualistic and collectivists. Catholicism believes in collectivism while Protestantism believes in individualism. He explained how Protestantism promoted self-reliance in addition to personal interests, while Catholicism supported lasting and hierarchical associations. Weber’s explanation on collectivism and individualism resembles the relationship between the collective rural villages and the individualistic urban societies. For the last 20 years, the notion of differentiating communities depending on dissimilarities in individualism has augmented in status, in a big proportion due to the very prominent work of Hofstede. Hofstede (1980) distinguished individualism in countries from m asculinity, power distance and uncertainty avoidance. In his descriptions, the particular questions utilized to evaluate individualism centered on the place of work, differentiating the level that employees esteemed individual time and preference with the level they esteemed career trainings and job security. During the Study, Hofstede (1980) assessed likely experiences and inferences of these job-related aspects for communities. While he was not the first social scholar to center unequivocally on culture, Hofstede’s concepts were significant since they prearranged cultural diversities into distinct patterns, which eased comparative study and instigated a swiftly growing organization of cultural and inter-cultural exploration in the following 20 years. Typically, researchers depict collectivism as the opposite of individualism particularly when differentiating East Asian cultural structures and European American (Chan, 1994). Researchers in social science believe that individ ualism is more widespread in developed Western societies than other traditional communities in emerging nations are. The process of civic liberation and Protestantism in Western democracies brought social and public structures that supported the position of personal freedom, and self-actualization and individual preference (Sampson, 2001). Scholars believe that these practices resulted in a Western civilizing center on individualism that is further outstanding in nations and cultural societies with a Protestant legacy. They also relate the thought of Western individualism to both in country and cross regional relationships of ethnic societies with diverse cultural legacies. Therefore, in America, it is usually understood that European Americans are less in collectivism and much into individualism than other people in ethnic minority groups elsewhere. Overall, present hypothesis in cultural psychology depicts the most individualistic group to be European Americans. The first thought that comes into one’s mind when dealing with European Americans is their individualistic nature. Since 1835, Americans have been individualistic. Individualism in America relates to restricted government, as well as equality and individual freedoms. American individualism is also associated with the American frontiers, the Puritans and the origin of their market economy. Individualism in America For a long time, Americans have taken liberty, life and the quest for happiness with much significance. Besides, Americans are known to carry out themselves as independent individuals, who are detached from others. They do not expect to receive any free thing from others, and they do not give out their things. They believe that they are individually responsible for their destiny. In fact, contemporary American cultural idols maintain to express their faith in individualism. Individual privacy as well as personal rights and liberties are celebrated. Besides, independence and individual happiness are highly esteemed. The truth is that every American endeavors to create a private, special and distinctive self (Sampson, 2001). Besides, Americans perceive individualism as an exclusively American feature that forms a fundamental element of their culture. Nevertheless, despite the apparent consent that European Americans are the model that depicts individualism, there is no logical prove of the principal postulation that European Americans act, or are more individualistic than other societies. Besides, there exists an obvious tension between the supposition that European Americans are exclusively low in collectivism and more inclined to individualism. Another area of contention is the supposition that the psychological frames built within the cultural ideals of attribution, self-concept and associations are collective frameworks, and not just structures resulting from and pertinent to an individualistic perspective. According to Baumeister (1998), recent American psych ological inquiry is mainly focused on an individualistic perspective and may not essentially act as a common form of human behavior to the degree that other individuals or states of the globe are stridently dissimilar from Americans in collectivism and individualism. For instance, focus on self-esteem and the principle that achievement of personal happiness is a fundamental motivational force acts as a guide to explorations on self-concept. Similarly, construal of cognitive processes and individual perceptions happens with regard to even traits, while equity is the foundation for flourishing relationships (Triandis, 1995). Such models of research can only be in shape with individualistic, but not collectivistic, ideals of the world. According to Triandis (1995), it is true that there exists disparities in individualism and the power of cultural structures is evident for the spheres of acknowledgment and relationality than all other areas. Psychological Consequences of Individualism According to Triandis (1995), it is possible to distinguish psychological effects of individualism in relation to self-concept, relationality and attribution. First, self-concept makes individualists to focus on making and sustaining a positive sense of self. In addition, self-concept makes individualists to feel good, to strive for individual success, and hold many unique individual views and attitudes. As per se, abstract characteristics, and not communal, descriptors are central to self-conceptualization Moreover, it is possible to distinguish psychological effects of individualism in relation to well-being. Individualism calls for open expression of sentiments as well as accomplishment of personal aims. Individualists view these two aspects as vital sources of life satisfaction and well-being. Furthermore, individualism calls for a personal orientation when it comes to reasoning and judgment, since the cause of the problems, or issues is perceived as an entity. Therefore, indivi dualists’ style of reasoning does not consider specific circumstances, or context. Rather, the style presupposes that social information is not connected to the social context. Lastly, the effects of individualism on relationships are quite tentative. People need relationships and affiliations to groups to achieve self-relevant ends, although relationships are expensive to sustain. Scholars imagine that individualists use equity standards to poise benefits and costs associated with relationships (Kim, 1994). They postulate that people step out of relationships when the costs exceed benefits, and join new relationships that may lead to achievement of personal goals. Thus, theorists suppose that individualists form temporary relationships and group affiliations (Kim, 1994). Psychological Consequences of Collectivism A key component of collectivism is the supposition that groups collectivism aims at keeping members of the communal system leaning toward in-groups and afar from ou t-group. In this case, in-groups include the clan, family, as well as ethnic and religious groups. According to Triandis (1995), collectivism is a varied construct, bringing together culturally dissimilar foci on diverse types and stages of reference groups. Thus, collectivism can denote a wide range of attitudes, values and actions than individualism. While at times seen as plain opposites, it is possibly more precise to conceptualize collectivism and individualism and as concepts that vary in the issues, they make prominent. Sampson (2001) explains that collectivism is found in communal societies typified by disseminate and mutual duties as well as prospects deriving from attributed statuses. In such societies, social components with similar objectives and values are centralized. The individual is just a part of the social, making the group that the person lives in the main component of focus. It is easy to identify possible psychological effects of collectivism. Some of these eff ects relate to welfare, self-concept, attribution and association. First, with reference to the self, collectivism denotes that belonging to a certain group is an essential feature of identity. On the same note, collectivism requires individual traits to mirror the objectives of collectivism, for instance, keeping harmonious interactions and sacrificing for the ordinary good of other members. Second, with reference to emotional expression and welfare, collectivists explain that satisfaction in life comes from accomplishing social obligations and ensuring success as opposed to failure in those areas. Besides, collectivists call for moderation in expressing sentiments, but not direct and open expression of inner emotions. Third, with reference to decisions, attributions and causal thinking, collectivism calls for consideration of the social environment, situational restraints, as well as social responsibilities. Collectivism contextualizes meaning and the memory of collectivists conta ins details that are richly rooted. Finally, with reference to relationships, collectivism calls for significant group memberships. Every member in a collective society must belong to a certain group. Members within the groups have certain limitations. In addition, exchanges inside the groups should follow the principles of generosity and equality. Case study of China China is a country that has had ideological evolution from a more collectivist society to a more individualistic society. China now embraces capitalism in its economy as opposed to socialism. Capitalists promote individualism (Weber, 1930). They believe that there is always a reward for individual effort and these rewards benefit an individual. On the contrary, socialists promote the wellbeing if the group rather than the individual. For a long time, China was a socialist economy. However, China experienced economic transformation in the last two decades and it transformed to a capitalist society. While the Chinese Com munist Party (CCP) goes on with its activities in the disguise of socialism, it should continue to turn away the surfacing of values like individualism, whose affiliation is in developed, Western democracies such as America. We all know that China is slowly embracing some aspects of individualism, although CPP does not announce it loudly. Nevertheless, this transformation to an individualistic society has led to realization that each citizen has some personal responsibility for his or her failure and achievements. Conclusion In conclusion, collectivism and individualism are cultural aspects that have a strong attachment to the society. Both aspects shape our identities and behavior. They also shape our values, attitudes, understanding, communication, socialization, as well as attribution. Individualism stresses personal autonomy and accomplishment. Hence, an individualist culture honors social status depending on individual undertakings such as significant innovations, inventions, a rtwork, or charitable work and all dealings that make a person noticeable Collectivism, in contrast emphasizes on connectedness of persons in a bigger group. It supports conventionality and disheartens individuals from rebelling and acting distinctively. African development serves as a good illustration of collectivism. Africans treat productive persons with distrust and force them to share their extra wealth with the community. Americans, on the other hand, embrace individualism. Every American endeavors to create a private, special and distinctive self (Sampson, 2001). They perceive individualism as an exclusively American feature that forms a fundamental element of their culture. In fact, Americans take liberty, life and the quest for happiness with much significance. Besides, Americans carry out themselves as independent individuals, who are detached from others. They do not expect to receive any free thing from others, and they do not give out their things. They believe that th ey are individually responsible for their destiny. Collectivism requires individual traits to mirror the objectives of collectivists. Collectivists explain that satisfaction in life comes from accomplishing social obligations and ensuring success as opposed to failure in those areas. They also call for moderation in expressing sentiments, but not direct and open expression of inner emotions. On the other hand, individualists focus on making and sustaining a positive sense of self. They call for open expression of sentiments as well as accomplishment of personal aims. Furthermore, individualists call for personal orientation when it comes to reasoning and judgment, since individualism treats causes of the problem, or issues as an entity. Therefore, individualists’ style of reasoning does not consider specific circumstances, or context. Rather, the style presupposes that social information is separate from the social context. Therefore, both collectivism and individualism shape our identities and behavior. References Baumeister, R. (1998). The self. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 680–740). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Burke, E. (1973). Reflections on the revolution in France. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press. Chan, D. K. (1994). COLINDEX: A refinement of three collectivism measures. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. Choi, G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications (pp. 200–210). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Kim, U. (1994). Individualism and collectivism: Conceptual clarification and elaboration. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. Choi, G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications (pp. 19–40). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Sampson, E. E. (2001). Reinterpreting individualism and collectivism: Their religious r oots and monologic versus dialogic person-other relationship. American Psychologist, 55, 1425–1432. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Weber, M. (1930). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New York, NY: Routledge. This assessment on Individualism vs. Collectivism was written and submitted by user Karla L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Salvation on Sand Mountain essays

Salvation on Sand Mountain essays Dennis Covington writes about the snake handling rituals that go on in Scottsboro, Alabama, in March on 1992 he calls it Salvation on Sand Mountain. While going to the services held at the churches, Covington realizes that he is not only doing a story on other peoples religions, but that he is also discovering his own religion. Covington creates feelings of sympathy and disgust for the reader while he talks about snake handling in southern churches. Through Covingtons eyes the reader is exposed to his spiritual journey, family, and southern beliefs about snake handling. Covingtons spiritual journey throughout Salvation on Sand Mountain was shocking. It makes one think that the phrase everything happens for a reason really is true. His first experience in a serpent-handling church was exhilarating and unsettling (11). Compared to Covingtons small Methodist church in Birmingham, Al. the snake-handling church on Sand Mountain seemed to bring a different point of view to Covington about his spiritual life. For example, Covington stated that he wanted to experience more (11) because the services at The Church of Jesus with Signs Following always seemed to leave Covington wondering about what was going to happen next. Dennis Covington began to get closer to the congregation and he soon had a taste for handling snakes. After he became familiar with the church services, he began to invite his family to come along. Covingtons daughter, Ashley, also had an influence on Covington becoming more interested in the snake handling ritual. She was the one person that he thought would never like an act such as snake handling. Her reaction to the services startled him. The raw hillbilly music had been imprinted on her genes, like something deep within her she was remembering (114). Ashleys reaction to the ritual brought on a more determined ...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Aldi Tea Advertisement Analysis Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Aldi Tea Advertisement Analysis - Coursework Example This advertisement passes on the products benefits which in this case are the Aldi tea in a way that it shows that its product is non-alcoholic and can be consumed by those who don’t take alcohol. It further states its benefit indirectly considering the fact that the old lady specifically states, it’s her who prefers the Gin to the tea hence we can assume that the rest of her family probably likes tea, like her husband thus it’s a product that is beneficial to all other family members, even young ones and has no harm at all. In regard to this, a competitive advertisement should outline and properly include the advertised products benefit to its market segment (Mullins & Walker, 2010). Unlike in the tea advertisement where the tea’s benefits are not fully outlined, one should exhaust all products benefits. It is researched that tea has substantial benefits to mankind. It contains tea phenolic that is responsible for inhibiting the bacteria that causes bad b reath, it also speeds up fat oxidation hence increasing metabolic rates to the human body (Muirhead, 2008). It is also confirmed that tea contains amino acid that lowers stress hormones in the body hence boosts mind alertness level, while on the other hand it boosts immune system in the body (Muirhead, 2008). ... Most known ways of product differentiation include preserved production and marketing; it is where the producers find, maintain and purify a particular raw material for a particular product hence no other product will taste similarly (Mullins & Walker, 2010). Another way used is that of segregation. This involves grouping, separation or selection of the product at its raw level depending on its quality at production level or materials. The third method used is traceability; here the product is researched for bacteria and any chemical residues levels to ascertain if any and to what extent (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). Though in Aldi tea advertisement, its product is not effectively differentiated from other products in the above ways, it tries to differentiate it through its advertisement in the sense that first, unlike other products and advertisement that go for celebrities and young people to advertise for them, here they went for an old lady which creates unfitness with the product. The second difference in this advertisement is the fact that most if not all adverts specifically talk about the advertised product and no other product are included in the advert. Unlike those, here the old lady tells us how her husband likes Aldi tea, but she herself prefers Gin to the tea hence creating uniqueness in the advert. The Aldis tea advert further creates contrast between its product and that of Gin since one is alcoholic and the other is non-alcoholic. The properties of a good advert are that which creates contrast or a difference between its products and adverts and those of its competitors. This helps so that its product is not mistaken for another product, or its advertisement (Fletcher,